Dr. MacLeod's empirical and theoretical contributions include some of the most striking advances in vision science in the second half of the twentieth century. Among his many contributions, MacLeod (with Boynton, 1979) developed a constant luminance cone excitation chromaticity space. The MacLeod-Boynton chromaticity diagram is widely used, and has become the preferred way of expressing chromatic discrimination data. The Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage will include a version of the MacLeod-Boynton chromaticity diagram in its new physiologically based colorimetric system. With Eisner (1980), he provided experimental evidence that the S-cones do not contribute to flicker photometric sensitivity. With Williams and Hayhoe (1981), MacLeod psychophysically mapped the S-cone distribution in the fovea. With Webster (1983, 1987), MacLeod analyzed individual differences in cone receptoral spectral sensitivities before molecular genetics provided a cellular basis fori functional polymorphism. The conclusions of the Webster-MacLeod analysis are concordant with modern molecular genetic studies.
André Roth created the Roth 28 Hue test for ophthalmological examination, and developed and standardized a sophisticated diagnostic set of tests based on color metrics for acquired color vision deficiencies. He developed an anomaloscope specially for the investigation of acquired and inherited color vision deficiencies in ophthalmology. As director of the Geneva University clinic, he has studied most eye diseases in which acquired color deficiencies play a significant role. Work for the IRGCVD and later ICVS was a significant part of his professional life. Together with Guy Verriest (the first President of the Society, for whom the medal is named), André belonged to the clinically oriented group, which recommended a separation of the IRGCVD from the AIC, to give ophthalmologists, physiologists and other clinicians a scientific home and a connection to color science. Soon after the death of Guy Verriest he took over the presidency of the Society from Wolfgang Jaeger and carefully led its further development, with expanded emphasis of genetic, molecular biological, physiological, and psychophysical research.
If the field of colour vision was itself a rainbow, then Professor Mollon's contributions cover nearly its full spectrum, including the isolation and elucidation of basic chromatic coding mechanisms and the constraints that they impose on human (and more generally primate) visual performance, the genetic basis of spectral coding mechanisms, the ecological influences on and evolutionary orgins of chromatic discrimination. He has been instrumental in the design of several new colour vision tests and has extensively exploited abnormal models, both congenital and acquired, to further our understanding of normal mechanisms. He is especially appreciated for his keen and profound sense of the history of science, in particular with respect to the field of colour vision.
Over the last 45 years, Professor Gerald H. Jacobs has authored more than 200 papers related to color vision. His discoveries have provided a basis for understanding the underpinnings of human color vision within the larger context of the evolution of the mammalian visual system. Professor Jacobs is a member of the Neuroscience Research Institute and the Department of Psychology at the University of California in Santa Barbara, where he has taken an interdisciplinary approach to characterizing the nature and distribution of the cone photopigments within and across mammalian species and understanding how variations in photoreceptor complement relate to differences in color vision capacity. Widely recognized as a leader among his generation of vision scientists, Professor Jacobs has been an inspiring mentor for generations of scientists who have shared his passion for understanding the diversity color vision in our world.
For over 35 years, Professor Shevell has contributed to the vision and particularly the color vision community in breaking new ground in research, training new researchers and providing service to the community. In his experimental work, he has carefully integrated theoretical and experimental approaches in studies of how early mechanisms and context influence color perception. He has artfully exploited the technique of hue cancellation to study adaptive processes, spatio-temporal constraints, memory and binocular integration in color perception. Professor Shevell is the Eliakim Hastings Moore Distinguished Service Professor in the Department of Psychology at The University of Chicago, Professor in the Section of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Department of Surgery, and in the Committee on Computational Neuroscience, and, also, immediate-past Chair of the Integrative Neuroscience Graduate Program. In addition, he has served, over the years, on editorial boards of leading journals, review panels of leading granting agencies and on the boards of major research societies. He is currently a member of the Directors' Committee of the ICVS. His wise and equilibrated advice is sought after in our deliberations and personifies the voice of careful research, integrity and reason.
Trained as a physicist, Professor Francoise Vienot was introduced to the mysteries of colour science by Yves Le Grand and she has carried forward his distinguished tradition. Her early work was on colorimetry: she was especially concerned with individual differences in colour matches, before the topic had become as fashionable as it later became. Her mastery of colorimetry led her to the work for which she is best known in the wider world: she developed an algorithm for simulating for the normal eye the appearance of scenes for the dichromat. This algorithm has found many practical applications, including an application for the iPhone that allows the user in real time to inspect the world as it appears to a protanope or deuteranope. Professor Vienot has contributed to many other aspects of colour science. She has published historical research on the colour system of Chevreul. She has published a textbook on colour science, as well as important papers on Maxwell's spot and macular pigment, on mesopic photometry, on the perception of gloss, and on the Benham-Fechner colours. She has a talent to take applied problems and use them to inspire fundamental research. For most of her career, Francoise Vienot has been based at the Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle; and this has had interesting influences on her science. She is an expert on plant pigments and is an authority on horticultural colours. The Museum brought her into contact with ecologists, a collaboration that led to the first experimental paper on the fruit signals that trees present to their disseminators. For nearly 20 years, she has marshalled all her considerable tact, patience and precision to bring to its conclusion CIE Technical Committee 1-36, which has prepared a physiologically based system of colorimetry. To our own Society, and to the IRGCVD from which it evolved, she has been an active and loyal contributor since 1974.
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